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Secret Science

By Ulf Schmidt
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Isbn : 0191056049
  • Pages : 320
  • Category : History
  • Reads : 129
  • File Pdf: secret-science.pdf

Book Summary:

From the early 1990s, allegations that servicemen had been duped into taking part in trials with toxic agents at top-secret Allied research facilities throughout the twentieth century featured with ever greater frequency in the media. In Britain, a whole army of over 21,000 soldiers had participated in secret experiments between 1939 and 1989. Some remembered their stay as harmless, but there were many for whom the experience had been all but pleasant, sometimes harmful, and in isolated cases deadly. Secret Science traces, for the first time, the history of chemical and biological weapons research by the former Allied powers, particularly in Britain, the United States, and Canada. It charts the ethical trajectory and culture of military science, from its initial development in response to Germany's first use of chemical weapons in the First World War to the ongoing attempts by the international community to ban these types of weapons once and for all. It asks whether Allied and especially British warfare trials were ethical, safe, and justified within the prevailing conditions and values of the time. By doing so, it helps to explain the complex dynamics in top-secret Allied research establishments: the desire and ability of the chemical and biological warfare corps, largely comprised of military officials, scientists, and expert civil servants, to construct and identify a never-ending stream of national security threats which served as flexible justification strategies for the allocation of enormous resources to conducting experimental research with some of the most deadly agents known to man. Secret Science offers a nuanced, non-judgemental analysis of the contributions made by servicemen, scientists, and civil servants to military research in Britain and elsewhere, not as passive, helpless victims 'without voices', or as laboratory and desk perpetrators 'without a conscience', but as history's actors and agents of their own destiny. As such it also makes an important contribution to the burgeoning literature on the history and culture of memory.

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From New York Times bestselling author Sam Kean comes the gripping, untold history of science's darkest secrets, “a fascinating book [that] deserves a wide audience” (Publishers Weekly, starred review) Science is a force for good in the world—at least usually. But sometimes, when obsession gets the better of scientists, they twist a noble pursuit into something sinister. Under this spell, knowledge isn’t everything, it’s the only thing—no matter the cost. Bestselling author Sam Kean tells the true story of what happens when unfettered ambition pushes otherwise rational men and women to cross the line in the name of science, trampling ethical boundaries and often committing crimes in the process. The Icepick Surgeon masterfully guides the reader across two thousand years of history, beginning with Cleopatra’s dark deeds in ancient Egypt. The book reveals the origins of much of modern science in the transatlantic slave trade of the 1700s, as well as Thomas Edison’s mercenary support of the electric chair and the warped logic of the spies who infiltrated the Manhattan Project. But the sins of science aren’t all safely buried in the past. Many of them, Kean reminds us, still affect us today. We can draw direct lines from the medical abuses of Tuskegee and Nazi Germany to current vaccine hesitancy, and connect icepick lobotomies from the 1950s to the contemporary failings of mental-health care. Kean even takes us into the future, when advanced computers and genetic engineering could unleash whole new ways to do one another wrong. Unflinching, and exhilarating to the last page, The Icepick Surgeon fuses the drama of scientific discovery with the illicit thrill of a true-crime tale. With his trademark wit and precision, Kean shows that, while science has done more good than harm in the world, rogue scientists do exist, and when we sacrifice morals for progress, we often end up with neither.

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  • File Pdf: victims-and-survivors-of-nazi-human-experiments.pdf

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While the coerced human experiments are notorious among all the atrocities under National Socialism, they have been marginalised by mainstream historians. This book seeks to remedy the marginalisation, and to place the experiments in the context of the broad history of National Socialism and the Holocaust. Paul Weindling bases this study on the reconstruction of a victim group through individual victims' life histories, and by weaving the victims' experiences collectively together in terms of different groupings, especially gender, ethnicity and religion, age, and nationality. The timing of the experiments, where they occurred, how many victims there were, and who they were, is analysed, as are hitherto under-researched aspects such as Nazi anatomy and executions. The experiments are also linked, more broadly, to major elements in the dynamic and fluid Nazi power structure and the implementation of racial policies. The approach is informed by social history from below, exploring both the rationales and motives of perpetrators, but assessing these critically in the light of victim narratives.

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  • File Pdf: the-immortal-life-of-henrietta-lacks.pdf

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#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • “The story of modern medicine and bioethics—and, indeed, race relations—is refracted beautifully, and movingly.”—Entertainment Weekly NOW A MAJOR MOTION PICTURE FROM HBO® STARRING OPRAH WINFREY AND ROSE BYRNE • ONE OF THE “MOST INFLUENTIAL” (CNN), “DEFINING” (LITHUB), AND “BEST” (THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER) BOOKS OF THE DECADE • ONE OF ESSENCE’S 50 MOST IMPACTFUL BLACK BOOKS OF THE PAST 50 YEARS • WINNER OF THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE HEARTLAND PRIZE FOR NONFICTION NAMED ONE OF THE BEST BOOKS OF THE YEAR BY The New York Times Book Review • Entertainment Weekly • O: The Oprah Magazine • NPR • Financial Times • New York • Independent (U.K.) • Times (U.K.) • Publishers Weekly • Library Journal • Kirkus Reviews • Booklist • Globe and Mail Her name was Henrietta Lacks, but scientists know her as HeLa. She was a poor Southern tobacco farmer who worked the same land as her slave ancestors, yet her cells—taken without her knowledge—became one of the most important tools in medicine: The first “immortal” human cells grown in culture, which are still alive today, though she has been dead for more than sixty years. HeLa cells were vital for developing the polio vaccine; uncovered secrets of cancer, viruses, and the atom bomb’s effects; helped lead to important advances like in vitro fertilization, cloning, and gene mapping; and have been bought and sold by the billions. Yet Henrietta Lacks remains virtually unknown, buried in an unmarked grave. Henrietta’s family did not learn of her “immortality” until more than twenty years after her death, when scientists investigating HeLa began using her husband and children in research without informed consent. And though the cells had launched a multimillion-dollar industry that sells human biological materials, her family never saw any of the profits. As Rebecca Skloot so brilliantly shows, the story of the Lacks family—past and present—is inextricably connected to the dark history of experimentation on African Americans, the birth of bioethics, and the legal battles over whether we control the stuff we are made of. Over the decade it took to uncover this story, Rebecca became enmeshed in the lives of the Lacks family—especially Henrietta’s daughter Deborah. Deborah was consumed with questions: Had scientists cloned her mother? Had they killed her to harvest her cells? And if her mother was so important to medicine, why couldn’t her children afford health insurance? Intimate in feeling, astonishing in scope, and impossible to put down, The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks captures the beauty and drama of scientific discovery, as well as its human consequences.

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  • File Pdf: foundations-of-human-sociality.pdf

Book Summary:

What motives underlie the ways humans interact socially? Are these the same for all societies? Are these part of our nature, or influenced by our environments? Over the last decade, research in experimental economics has emphatically falsified the textbook representation of Homo economicus. Literally hundreds of experiments suggest that people care not only about their own material payoffs, but also about such things as fairness, equity and reciprocity. However, this research left fundamental questions unanswered: Are such social preferences stable components of human nature; or, are they modulated by economic, social and cultural environments? Until now, experimental research could not address this question because virtually all subjects had been university students, and while there are cultural differences among student populations throughout the world, these differences are small compared to the full range of human social and cultural environments. A vast amount of ethnographic and historical research suggests that people's motives are influenced by economic, social, and cultural environments, yet such methods can only yield circumstantial evidence about human motives. Combining ethnographic and experimental approaches to fill this gap, this book breaks new ground in reporting the results of a large cross-cultural study aimed at determining the sources of social (non-selfish) preferences that underlie the diversity of human sociality. The same experiments which provided evidence for social preferences among university students were performed in fifteen small-scale societies exhibiting a wide variety of social, economic and cultural conditions by experienced field researchers who had also done long-term ethnographic field work in these societies. The findings of these experiments demonstrated that no society in which experimental behaviour is consistent with the canonical model of self-interest. Indeed, results showed that the variation in behaviour is far greater than previously thought, and that the differences between societies in market integration and the importance of cooperation explain a substantial portion of this variation, which individual-level economic and demographic variables could not. Finally, the extent to which experimental play mirrors patterns of interaction found in everyday life is traced. The book starts with a succinct but substantive introduction to the use of game theory as an analytical tool and its use in the social sciences for the rigorous testing of hypotheses about fundamental aspects of social behaviour outside artificially constructed laboratories. The results of the fifteen case studies are summarized in a suggestive chapter about the scope of the project.

The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals

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Book Summary:

Read and download full book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals

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By Ezekiel J. Emanuel,Christine C. Grady,Robert A. Crouch,Reidar K. Lie,Franklin G. Miller,David D. Wendler
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Book Summary:

The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics is the first comprehensive and systematic reference on clinical research ethics. Under the editorship of experts from the U.S. National Institutes of Health of the United States, the book's 73 chapters offer a wide-ranging and systematic examination of all aspects of research with human beings. Considering the historical triumphs of research as well as its tragedies, the textbook provides a framework for analyzing the ethical aspects of research studies with human beings. Through both conceptual analysis and systematic reviews of empirical data, the contributors examine issues ranging from scientific validity, fair subject selection, risk benefit ratio, independent review, and informed consent to focused consideration of international research ethics, conflicts of interests, and other aspects of responsible conduct of research. The editors of The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics offer a work that critically assesses and advances scholarship in the field of human subjects research. Comprehensive in scope and depth, this book will be a crucial resource for researchers in the medical sciences, as well as teachers and students.

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Useful Bodies

By Jordan Goodman,Anthony McElligott,Lara Marks
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Book Summary:

A collection of essays that offers “a significant contribution to our understanding of the role of the state in human subjects research” (Journal of the History of Biology). Though notoriously associated with Germany, human experimentation in the name of science has been practiced in other countries, as well, both before and after the Nazi era. The use of unwitting or unwilling subjects in experiments designed to test the effects of radiation and disease on the human body emerged at the turn of the twentieth century, when the rise of the modern, coercive state and the professionalization of medical science converged. Useful Bodies explores the intersection of government power and medical knowledge in revealing studies of human experimentation—germ warfare and jaundice tests in Great Britain; radiation, malaria, and hepatitis experiments in the U.S.; and nuclear fallout trials in Australia. These examples of medical abuse illustrate the extent to which living human bodies have been “useful” to democratic states and emphasize the need for intense scrutiny and regulation to prevent future violations. Contributors: Brian Balmer, University College London; Miriam Boleyn-Fitzgerald, University of Wisconsin; Rodney A. Hayward, University of Michigan; Joel D. Howell, University of Michigan; Margaret Humphreys, Duke University; David S. Jones, Massachusetts General Hospital; Robert L. Martensen, Tulane University School of Medicine; Glenn Mitchell, University of Wollongong; Jenny Stanton, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine; Gilbert Whittemore, independent scholar/attorney, Boston “Each chapter is a startling case study that examines the nature and degree of the state’s involvement in human experimentation.” —Issues in Law and Medicine “Well written and meticulously researched.” —Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences

Human Radiation Experiments

By DIANE Publishing Company
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  • Publisher : DIANE Publishing
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  • Pages : 434
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  • File Pdf: human-radiation-experiments.pdf

Book Summary:

Examines progress that the U.S. government has made to identify and catalog the many radiation experiments carried out in the U.S. involving human subjects and to establish an effective set of policies and procedures to protect citizens from dangerous and unethical research practices. Presents testimony from representatives from the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the State of Alaska, the Task Force on Radiation and Human Rights, Concerned Relatives of Cancer Study Patients, the National Institute of Health (Office for Protection from Research Risks), the Dept. of Energy, the General Accounting Office, and the Dept. of Defense.

The International Legal Governance of the Human Genome

By Chamundeeswari Kuppuswamy
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Isbn : 1134047428
  • Pages : 224
  • Category : Law
  • Reads : 644
  • File Pdf: the-international-legal-governance-of-the-human-genome.pdf

Book Summary:

The human genome is a well known symbol of scientific and technological progress in the twenty-first century. However, concerns about the exacerbation of inequalities between the rich and the poor, the developing and the developed states, the healthy and the unhealthy are causing problems for the progress of scientific research. The international community is moving towards a human rights approach in addressing these concerns. Such an approach will be piecemeal and ineffective so long as fundamental issues about economic, social and cultural rights, the so-called second generation of human rights, are not addressed. This book argues that, in order to be able to meaningfully apply a human rights framework to the governance of the human genome, the international human rights framework should be based on a unified theory of human rights where the distinction between positive and negative rights is set aside. The book constructs a common heritage concept with the right to development at its core and explores the content of the right to development through rational human rights theory. It is argued that the notion of property rights in the human genome should be placed within the context of protecting human rights, including the right to development. The concept of common heritage of humanity, contrary to the widely held belief that it is in opposition to patenting of gene sequences, supports human rights-based conceptions of property rights. This book fills a gap in the literature on international legal governance of the human genome will provide an essential reference point for research into the right to development, development issues in bioethics, the role of international institutions in law making and research governance.

Human Subjects Research after the Holocaust

By Sheldon Rubenfeld,Susan Benedict
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer
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  • Pages : 308
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  • File Pdf: human-subjects-research-after-the-holocaust.pdf

Book Summary:

“An engaging, compelling and disturbing confrontation with evil ...a book that will be transformative in its call for individual and collective moral responsibility." – Michael A. Grodin, M.D., Professor and Director, Project on Medicine and the Holocaust, Elie Wiesel Center for Judaic Studies, Boston University Human Subjects Research after the Holocaust challenges you to confront the misguided medical ethics of the Third Reich personally, and to apply the lessons learned to contemporary human subjects research. While it is comforting to believe that Nazi physicians, nurses, and bioscientists were either incompetent, mad, or few in number, they were, in fact, the best in the world at the time, and the vast majority participated in the government program of “applied biology.” They were not coerced to behave as they did—they enthusiastically exploited widely accepted eugenic theories to design horrendous medical experiments, gas chambers and euthanasia programs, which ultimately led to mass murder in the concentration camps. Americans provided financial support for their research, modeled their medical education and research after the Germans, and continued to perform unethical human subjects research even after the Nuremberg Doctors’ Trial. The German Medical Association apologized in 2012 for the behavior of its physicians during the Third Reich. By examining the medical crimes of human subjects researchers during the Third Reich, you will naturally examine your own behavior and that of your colleagues, and perhaps ask yourself "If the best physicians and bioscientists of the early 20th century could do evil while believing they were doing good, can I be certain that I will never do the same?"

The Human Psyche

By J. C. Eccles
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Isbn : 3642492525
  • Pages : 283
  • Category : Medical
  • Reads : 343
  • File Pdf: the-human-psyche.pdf

Book Summary:

In February and March 1978 I delivered my first series of Gifford Lectures in the University of Edinburgh. These lectures have been published under the title The Human Mystery. The second series of ten lectures were delivered from April 18 to May 4 1979 under the title The Human Psyche. As with the first series, the printed text is actually the manuscript prepared for those lectures, not some later compilation. The lectures were delivered informally, but based strictly on this manuscript. It is hoped that the printed text will convey the dramatic character of a lecture presenta tion. This book must not be regarded as a definitive text in neuroscience, psychology and philosophy, but rather as a series of 'adventures of ideas', to revive a Whiteheadean title. The brain-mind problem has been the theme of three recent books: The Self and Its Brain; The Human Mystery (in its latter part); and now The Human Psyche. In this book there is critical discussion in the first lecture of the materialist hypotheses of the relationship of the self-con scious mind to the brain. In the subsequent lectures the strong dualist-interactionism developed in The Self and Its Brain is explored in depth in relation to a wide variety of phenomena relating to self-consciousness. The aim has been to demonstrate the great explanatory power of dualist interactionism in contrast to the poverty and inadequacy of all varieties of the materialist theories of the mind.

Categories of Human Learning

By Arthur W. Melton
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Isbn : 1483258378
  • Pages : 370
  • Category : Psychology
  • Reads : 426
  • File Pdf: categories-of-human-learning.pdf

Book Summary:

Categories of Human Learning covers the papers presented at the Symposium on the Psychology of Human Learning, held at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor on January 31 and February 1, 1962. The book focuses on the different classifications of human learning. The selection first offers information on classical and operant conditioning and the categories of learning and the problem of definition. Discussions focus on classical and instrumental conditioning and the nature of reinforcement; comparability of the forms of human learning; conditioning experiments with human subjects; and subclasses of classical and instrumental conditioning. The text then takes a look at the representativeness of rote verbal learning and centrality of verbal learning. The publication ponders on probability learning, evaluation of stimulus sampling theory, and short-term memory and incidental learning. Topics include short-term retention, stimulus variation experiments, reinforcement schedules and mean response, systematic interpretations, and methodological approaches. The book then examines the behavioral effects of instruction to learning, verbalizations and concepts, and the generality of research on transfer functions. The selection is highly recommended for psychologists and educators wanting to conduct studies on the categories of human learning.

Nazi Medicine and the Nuremberg Trials

By P. Weindling
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Isbn : 0230506054
  • Pages : 482
  • Category : History
  • Reads : 212
  • File Pdf: nazi-medicine-and-the-nuremberg-trials.pdf

Book Summary:

This book offers a radically new and definitive reappraisal of Allied responses to Nazi human experiments and the origins of informed consent. It places the victims and Allied Medical Intelligence officers at centre stage, while providing a full reconstruction of policies on war crimes and trials related to Nazi medical atrocities and genocide.

The Nazis and Evil: The Annihilation of the Human Being

By Ana Rubio-Serrano
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Babelcube Inc.
  • Isbn : 1507166400
  • Pages : 109
  • Category : History
  • Reads : 790
  • File Pdf: the-nazis-and-evil.pdf

Book Summary:

Nazism opened the door to global terrorism. It designed a structural evil in which no one was safe, not even the German people themselves. The enemy: anyone able to think freely for themselves, in a manner contrary to rules dictated by the Nazis. The Aryans were merely "manufactured individuals," designed for violence, that is to say, dehumanized, intelligent automatons. The socialization of crime through violence-turned-culture was one of the objectives that the Nazis managed to establish within the camps and throughout society. This is a current book that reflects on the past and offers us questions on the present.

Traceable Human Experiment Design Research

By Nadine Mandran
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Isbn : 111951049X
  • Pages : 270
  • Category : Computers
  • Reads : 693
  • File Pdf: traceable-human-experiment-design-research.pdf

Book Summary:

The aim of this book is to describe the methodology of conducting the THEDRE research "Traceable Human Experiment Design Research". It applies to Research in Human Centered Informatics (RICH). These are areas of computer research that integrate users to build scientific knowledge and supporting tools for this research. As an example, we can mention the relevant fields such as Information Systems (IS), Human Machine Interfaces (HMI) Engineering, and Human Information Systems (HIA). The construction of this language and method is based on experiments conducted since 2008 in the field of RICH.

Cancer Genetics and Psychotherapy

By Parvin Mehdipour
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Isbn : 3319645501
  • Pages : 1170
  • Category : Medical
  • Reads : 987
  • File Pdf: cancer-genetics-and-psychotherapy.pdf

Book Summary:

The aim of this book is to provide the readers with the most comprehensive and latest accounts of research and development in this field by emphasizing on the manner of relation between doctors and cancer patients in direction of improving the patients’ style of life. This book, partly, will deal with psychotherapy by considering cancer patients, benefits, hazards and also social impacts including life style. The social supports as the key and influential paradigms will be challenged as a comparative insight by considering the global unity in order to provide a reasonable model to improve the interaction between cancer and psychological nest. In this book, the real stories of cancer patient will be also provided. The initial insight of sections includes: 1) Brief classifications and key points of clinical and histopatological aspects of each organ. 2) Brief view of genetic alterations in each organ. 3) Therapeutic aspects. 4) Brief classifications and key points of Psychology in cancer. 5) The interactions of clinical aspects with psychological field.

Fascia: The Tensional Network of the Human Body - E-Book

By Robert Schleip,Thomas W. Findley,Leon Chaitow,Peter Huijing
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Isbn : 0702052280
  • Pages : 566
  • Category : Medical
  • Reads : 330
  • File Pdf: fascia.pdf

Book Summary:

This book is the product of an important collaboration between clinicians of the manual therapies and scientists in several disciplines that grew out of the three recent International Fascia Research Congresses (Boston, Amsterdam, and Vancouver). The book editors, Thomas Findley MD PhD, Robert Schleip PhD, Peter Huijing PhD and Leon Chaitow DO, were major organizers of these congresses and used their extensive experience to select chapters and contributors for this book. This volume therefore brings together contributors from diverse backgrounds who share the desire to bridge the gap between theory and practice in our current knowledge of the fascia and goes beyond the 2007, 2009 and 2012 congresses to define the state-of-the-art, from both the clinical and scientific perspective. Prepared by over 100 specialists and researchers from throughout the world, Fascia: The Tensional Network of the Human Body will be ideal for all professionals who have an interest in fascia and human movement - physiotherapists, osteopathic physicians, osteopaths, chiropractors, structural integration practitioners, manual therapists, massage therapists, acupuncturists, yoga or Pilates instructors, exercise scientists and personal trainers - as well as physicians involved with musculoskeletal medicine, pain management and rehabilitation, and basic scientists working in the field. Reflects the efforts of almost 100 scientists and clinicians from throughout the world Offers comprehensive coverage ranging from anatomy and physiology, clinical conditions and associated therapies, to recently developed research techniques Explores the role of fascia as a bodywide communication system Presents the latest information available on myofascial force transmission which helps establish a scientific basis for given clinical experiences Explores the importance of fascia as a sensory organ - for example, its important proprioceptive and nociceptive functions which have implications for the generation of low back pain Describes new imaging methods which confirm the connectivity of organs and tissues Designed to organize relevant information for professionals involved in the therapeutic manipulation of the body’s connective tissue matrix (fascia) as well as for scientists involved in basic science research Reflects the increasing need for information about the properties of fascia, particularly for osteopaths, massage therapists, physiotherapists and other complementary health care professionals Offers new insights on the fascial related foundations of Traditional Chinese Medicine Meridians and the fascial effects of acupuncture

Medicine and Medical Ethics in Nazi Germany

By Francis R. Nicosia,Jonathan Huener
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Berghahn Books
  • Isbn : 9780857456922
  • Pages : 180
  • Category : History
  • Reads : 654
  • File Pdf: medicine-and-medical-ethics-in-nazi-germany.pdf

Book Summary:

The participation of German physicians in medical experiments on innocent people and mass murder is one of the most disturbing aspects of the Nazi era and the Holocaust. Six distinguished historians working in this field are addressing the critical issues raised by these murderous experiments, such as the place of the Holocaust in the larger context of eugenic and racial research, the motivation and roles of the German medical establishment, and the impact and legacy of the eugenics movements and Nazi medical practice on physicians and medicine since World War II. Based on the authors' original scholarship, these essays offer an excellent and very accessible introduction to an important and controversial subject. They are also particularly relevant in light of current controversies over the nature and application of research in human genetics and biotechnology.

Miltary Medical Ethics, Volume 2

By
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : DIANE Publishing
  • Isbn : 1428910662
  • Pages :
  • Category :
  • Reads : 232
  • File Pdf: miltary-medical-ethics-volume-2.pdf

Book Summary:

Read and download full book Miltary Medical Ethics, Volume 2

Embodied Communication in Humans and Machines

By Ipke Wachsmuth,Manuela Lenzen,Günther Knoblich
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Isbn : 0191552429
  • Pages : 496
  • Category : Psychology
  • Reads : 544
  • File Pdf: embodied-communication-in-humans-and-machines.pdf

Book Summary:

When people communicate face to face they don't just exchange verbal information. Rather, communication encompasses the whole body. Communication partners synchronize their body sway, and mimic or imitate each other's body postures and actions. They produce a multitude of manual and facial gestures that help to illustrate what is being said, show how communication partners feel, or or reveal verbal deception. Moreover, face-to-face communication takes place in shared contexts where partners jointly attend and refer to the same objects, often while working on joint tasks such as carrying a table or repairing a car together. Traditionally, communication research has neglected these parts of communication using the engineering model of signal transmission as the main theoretical metaphor. This book takes a new look at recent empirical findings in the cognitive and neurosciences, showing that the traditional approach is insufficient, and presenting a new interdisciplinary perspective, the Embodied Communication perspective. The core claim of the Embodied Communication perspective is that human communication involves parallel and highly interactive couplings between communication partners. These couplings range from low-level systems for performing and understanding instrumental actions, like the mirror system, to higher-systems that interpret symbols in a cultural context. The book can also serve as a guide for engineers who construct artificial agents and robots that should be able to interact with humans.

Supply Chain Intelligence

By Kaushik Kumar,J. Paulo Davim
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Isbn : 3030464253
  • Pages : 174
  • Category : Technology & Engineering
  • Reads : 214
  • File Pdf: supply-chain-intelligence.pdf

Book Summary:

The book provides an introduction to logistics and supply chain management and the application of evolutionary computation, focusing on specific fields related to supply chain issues, from strategic sourcing decisions, and production planning and control to inventory to logistics and its application using evolutionary / heuristics techniques. Bridging the gap between management research, decision-making and computer analysis, this interdisciplinary book features state-of-the-art descriptions of the corresponding problems and advanced methods for solving them.

Japan's Wartime Medical Atrocities

By Jing Bao Nie,Nanyan Guo,Mark Selden,Arthur Kleinman
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Isbn : 1136952594
  • Pages : 272
  • Category : Medical
  • Reads : 339
  • File Pdf: japan-s-wartime-medical-atrocities.pdf

Book Summary:

Prior to and during the Second World War, the Japanese Army established programs of biological warfare throughout China and elsewhere. In these “factories of death,” including the now-infamous Unit 731, Japanese doctors and scientists conducted large numbers of vivisections and experiments on human beings, mostly Chinese nationals. However, as a result of complex historical factors including an American cover-up of the atrocities, Japanese denials, and inadequate responses from successive Chinese governments, justice has never been fully served. This volume brings together the contributions of a group of scholars from different countries and various academic disciplines. It examines Japan’s wartime medical atrocities and their postwar aftermath from a comparative perspective and inquires into perennial issues of historical memory, science, politics, society and ethics elicited by these rebarbative events. The volume’s central ethical claim is that the failure to bring justice to bear on the systematic abuse of medical research by Japanese military medical personnel more than six decades ago has had a profoundly retarding influence on the development and practice of medical and social ethics in all of East Asia. The book also includes an extensive annotated bibliography selected from relevant publications in Japanese, Chinese and English.